PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF NEUTRALIZATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNOGENIC THREATS IN THE ZONE OF MILITARY CONFLICT IN DONBAS
The actual ecological and human-caused threats in the zone of military conflict in the East of Ukraine which tend to exacerbate and negatively affect the state of national security are ana- lyzed. The attention is paid to the fact that due to military actions, destruction of infrastructure in the temporarily occupied territory, a fragile ecological balance has been violated, which led to dangerous changes of the environment in the territory where about 5 million people lived. At the same time, because of hostilities in the temporarily occupied territory, a significant number of infrastructure objects were damaged and destroyed, that form additional threat to the ecological safety, health and safety of the population. Attention is drawn to the fact that among the human- caused threats in the zone of military conflict in the East of Ukraine, the most pressing is the stopping of drainage and ventilation of mines, many of which have a hydraulic connection. Be- cause of uncontrolled flooding of the mines, there will be flooding of significant areas of cities and villages, large-scale pollution of surface water intakes by mine waters, subsidence of the sur- face with the destruction of infrastructure objects, migration of explosive methane from mines with its exit on the territory of cities and towns. It is emphasized that taking into account the magnitude of the manifestation and the complex of negative environmental impacts for the East- ern region of Ukraine, it can be considered that the problem of pollution and degradation of the main environmental components in the Donbas, taking into account the long-term effects of man-made and social consequences, is systemic and can be considered as a new threat to na- tional security in environmental sphere. The conclusion is made that conducting of ecological monitoring of the territory of Donetsk and Lugansk regions using expeditionary surveys, remote and information technologies with the involvement of international organizations for estimation and forecast of the ecological situation, substantiation and implementation of the primary pro- tective measures is extremely relevant. Considering the identified trends in the formation and manifestation of actual threats in the zone of military conflict in the East of Ukraine, the recom- mendations to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Re- sources of Ukraine, the State Service of Ukraine for Emergencies concerning the development of necessary measures to counteract these threats have been proposed.
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