• S. Zavgorodnia
Keywords: interests, person, civil society, balanced state paternalism, reformation of energy markets, efficient energy use, subsidizing energy supply


The article focuses on the problem of finding a balance between the interests of the individual, society and the state arising from the abandonment of the policy of subsidizing energy supply, the refusal of the formation of prices and tariffs on the principle of “cost plus” and the implementation of targeted social support for vulnerable energy consumers. It is noted that the reformation of the internal energy markets simultaneously have to foresee the reconciliation of personal and public interests, provided that they are maximally accounted for and managed, and the application in the modern conditions of state-building of balanced state paternalism have to combine targeted social support of separate sections of the population with the processes of social self-organization, creating conditions for realizing the needs of the population in energy resources by their own efforts. Reforming energy subsidies in the direction from subsidizing producers to addressing help of vulnerable energy consumers in the long run leads to an increase of public welfare, but at the same time forces the person of that measure of responsibility that he has not previously required – a conservative use of energy resources and management efficiency. It is envisaged the formation of a person as an object and subject of coordination of interests for energy-efficient and energy-saving consumption. It is found out the place and role of institutes of civil society as important representatives of social interests, influential mediators between their carriers and state authorities, which should direct efforts to reconcile the interests of the person with socially important interests, by transforming their orientation towards the values of society. This will help to neutralize the paternalistic expectations of the population and the belief in the existence of cheap energy resources, the formation of the responsibility of the population for economical and energy-efficient consumption, and also an important role in ensuring public stability.


1. Dohovir pro zasnuvannia Enerhetychnoho Spivtovarystva [Agreement on the founding of the Energy Community]. (n.d.). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

2. Dyrektyva Yevropeiskoho parlamentu ta Rady 2009/73/YeS «Pro spilni pravyla vnutrishnoho rynku pryrodnoho hazu ta pro skasuvannia Dyrektyvy 2003/55/YeS» vid 13 lypnia 2009 r. [Directive 2009/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council “On common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive 2003/55/EC” of 13 July 2009]. (n.d.). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

3. Dyrektyva Yevropeiskoho parlamentu ta Rady 2009/72/YeS «Pro spilni pravyla vnutrishnoho rynku elektroenerhii ta pro skasuvannia Dyrektyvy 2003/54/YeS» vid 13 lypnia 2009 r. [Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council “On common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC” of 13 July 2009]. (n.d.). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

4. Geyets, V. (2014). Modernizatsiia v sisteme «obshchestvo – gosudarstvo – ekonomika» [Modernization in the system "society – state – economy"]. Zhurnal yevropeiskoi ekonomiky – Journal of the European Economy, 3 (3), 237–252 [in Russian].

5. Sukhodolia, O.M., & Smenkovskyi, A.Yu. (2013). Enerhetychnyi sektor Ukrainy: perspektyva reformuvannia chy stahnatsiia? [Energy sector of Ukraine: the prospect of reform or stagnation?] Stratehichni priorytety Strategic Priorities, 2 (27), 74–80 [in Ukrainian].

6. Ukaz Prezydenta Ukrainy «Pro Stratehiiu staloho rozvytku «Ukraina – 2020» vid 12 sichnia 2015 r. № 5/2015 [Decree of the President of Ukraine “On the Strategy for Sustainable Development “Ukraine – 2020” dated January 12, 2015, No. 5/2015]. Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

7. Kostriukov, S.V. (2018). Teorii suspilnoho dohovoru: yevropeiskyi i ukrainskyi konteksty [Theories of social contract: European and Ukrainian contexts]. Hileia: naukovyi visnyk – Gilea: Scientific Bulletin, 130, 328–332 [in Ukrainian].

8. Huberskyi, L.V., Nadolnyi, I.F. (Ed.), & Andrushchenko, V.P. et al. (2008). Filosofiia [Philosophy]. Kyiv: Vikar [in Ukrainian].

9. Yelahin, V.P. (2011). Suchasna paradyhma rozbudovy sotsialnoi derzhavy v Ukraini [Modern paradigm of social state building in Ukraine]. Kharkiv: Vyd-vo KharRI NADU «Mahistr» [in Ukrainian].

10. Baltacheieva, N. (2012). Napriamy systemnoi transformatsii sotsialnoi polityky v Ukraini [Directions of systemic transformation of social policy in Ukraine]. Ekonomist – Economist, 8, 29–32 [in Ukrainian].

11. Khoma, N.M. (2012). Typolohiia modelei sotsialnoi derzhavy: analiz osnovnykh pidkhodiv [Typology of models of social state: analysis of basic approaches]. Derzhava i pravo State and Law, 56, 618–623 [in Ukrainian].

12. Zakon Ukrainy «Pro Derzhavnyi biudzhet Ukrainy na 2016 rik» vid 25 hrudnia 2015 r. № 928-VIII [The Law of Ukraine “On the State Budget of Ukraine for 2016” dated December 25, 2015, No. 928-VIII]. (n.d.). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian]

13. Zakon Ukrainy «Pro Derzhavnyi biudzhet Ukrainy na 2018 rik» vid 07 hrudnia 2015 r. № 2246-VIII [The Law of Ukraine “On the State Budget of Ukraine for 2016” dated December 7, 2017 No. 2246-VIII]. (n.d.). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian]

14. Andrii Reva: Zminy v systemi sotsialnoho zakhystu naselennia poklykani zabezpechyty sotsialnu spravedlyvist ta adresnist dopomohy [Andrei Reva: Changes in the system of social protection of the population are intended to ensure social justice and targeted assistance]. (n.d.). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

15. Fond enerhoefektyvnosti. Yak tse bude [Energy Efficiency Foundation. How it will be]. (n.d.). Retrieved from [in Ukrainian].

16. Hryhoriev, L. M. ,  & Kurdyn, A. A.  (Eds.). (2014). Energeticheskie subsidii v sovremennom mire. Strany «Gruppy dvadtsiaty» [Energy Subsidies in the Modern World. Countries of the Group of Twenty]. Moscow: Asmin Print [in Russian].

17. Sytnyk, H.P. (2004). Derzhavne upravlinnia natsionalnoiu bezpekoiu Ukrainy [Public administration of national security in Ukraine]. Kyiv: NADU [in Ukrainian].

18. Onishchenko, N., & Suniehin, S. (2015). Mekhanizm vzaiemodii osoby, hromadianskoho suspilstva i derzhavy: sutnisni ta empirychni problemy udoskonalennia [The Mechanism of Interaction of a Person, Civil Society and the State: the Essential and Empirical Problems of Improvement]. Publichne pravo Public Law, 4 (20), 236–245 [in Ukrainian].

19. Hural, P.F. (2013). Hromadianske suspilstvo i derzhava v Ukraini: vzaiemodiia i rozvytok [Civil Society and the State in Ukraine: Interaction and Development]. Chasopys Kyiv. un-tu prava Journal of the Kyiv University of Law, 3, 13–16 [in Ukrainian].
How to Cite